Best programming languages ​​to learn: JavaScript, Python, SQL, and Java top the list.

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Learning to code isn’t just about mastering syntax. It is the gateway to a lucrative career in software development. According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, software developers earned a median annual wage of more than $127,000 in 2022 and that is expected to grow 25 percent by 2032.

Rod Garcia, VP of engineering at Slack, captures the allure succinctly: “It’s great — the way humans can interact with machines.” This communication between humans and computers is done through programming languages. Although the two terms have subtle differences – they are often used interchangeably.


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Choosing where to start is like choosing a real-life language to learn. According to the official website ShareAmerica, 350 to 430 languages ​​are spoken in the United States alone. Likewise, there are hundreds of programming languages ​​to choose from.

Whether it’s the versatility of Python, the versatility of JavaScript, or the elegance of SQL, your choice will shape your journey into the complex world of code. Some languages, like the meme-filled LOLCODE, remain in relative obscurity, while others are in high demand, like leading players JavaScript and Python.

4 Programming Languages ​​Worth Learning

Gone are the days when the best language for beginners was determined entirely by the number of books available. Thanks to AI, any language can be a starting point if you have the determination and the required skills. Ultimately, there is no one-size-fits-all answer when trying to choose which programming language to learn first. Instead, consider your goals, interests, and the specific problem you want to solve.

Another important factor to consider is your drive to learn and practice. “It’s fuel,” Garcia says. With access to so many resources online, ChatGPT, and AI chatbots, learning a language is getting easier and easier. “It’s about the fuel you want to learn.”

Our methodology for determining the best programming language for beginners draws from two key sources: insights provided by Garcia and Stack Overflow’s 2023 Developer Survey, which received responses from more than 90,000 professionals; .

1. JavaScript

JavaScript easily makes web pages interactive and is where many other languages ​​come in. There are more than 80 JavaScript frameworks, including Node.js, Dart, and TypeScript.

“Not only is it [JavaScript] The front-end language of the web, it allows people to create back-end solutions. If you want to learn a language, JavaScript is great in the early stages of learning how to build full-stack solutions,” says Garcia.

Classification: JavaScript is a high-level object-oriented scripting language.

Usage: JavaScript allows you to manipulate HTML and CSS, allowing you to create smooth animations, transitions, and visual effects. On the technical side, JavaScript can validate email addresses in web forms. It can also be used to create web-based games, such as Words With Friends 2 and 2048. And with new frameworks like React Native and Ionic, you can use JavaScript outside of the web to build apps for iOS and Android.

Places to learn it.: good fortune Find intense bootcamps to teach you how to code JavaScript for under $21,000. You can learn for free on sites like Udemy, Coursera, and Codecademy.

2. Python

Python is the most popular programming language on GitHub because of its robust ecosystem of libraries and its general nature that it can meet a variety of programming needs across AI, such as machine learning, deep learning, and computer science. Vision. Its libraries are collections of open source code modules, saving developers time and effort.

Python has long been one of the industry’s top languages, but now more than ever, it’s important to communicate with AI applications or train your models, Garcia says. It’s the default choice.” According to the World Economic Forum’s 2020 “Future of Jobs” report, artificial intelligence will rapidly create about 97 million new jobs.

Classification: Python is a high-level object-oriented scripting language.

Usage: Back-end web developers use Python to build web applications, analyze data, and automate tasks. Companies in various industries use it—NASA, Google, and Netflix—to handle big data, perform complex mathematical calculations, and read and edit large files.

Places to learn it.: Bootcamps like General Assembly and CodingNomads teach the language, and you can also learn through the official Python website. Codeacademy’s free course, Python 2, and The Hitchhiker’s Guide to Python are free resources for learning. Early projects include creating secure password generators and games like Rock, Paper, Caesars.

3. SQL

Structured query languages ​​or SQL (pronounced “sequel”) allow both analysts and programmers to access data stored within a database. Programmers refer to SQL as “Turing complete” which indicates the power of the language. The more powerful a language is, the more complex equations it can perform.

SQL gives developers access to common table expressions (CTEs) and window functions (such as SUM, AVG, and COUNT), making it a powerful database management system. It is widely used by mid- to large-sized organizations, such as tech giants Facebook and Microsoft, to manage and retrieve information.

Classification: SQL is a high-level data-oriented language.

Usage: For developers building mobile or web apps, when a new user enters their username and password, it goes to a database — typically MySQL, PostgreSQL, and SQLite — and then a SQL query. is retrieved with

However, many different industries use SQL. For example, marketing teams can create promotions targeting customers based on data stored in a database and retrieved with an SQL query. Financial organizations can organize sales data with language, and healthcare clinics can create dashboards to organize patient reports.

Places to learn it.: Codecademy and DataCamp offer courses for all levels of learners. Additionally, eCornell, an online platform affiliated with Cornell University, offers certification programs in data management using SQL and data visualization using Tableau.

4. Java

Java, a nearly three-decade-old programming language, is one of the most popular choices for developers. It is widely used in customer relationship management (CRM) software applications and financial management platforms due to its robustness, cross-platform capabilities and security. According to IBM, the language is easy to learn, write, compile and debug.

Java is used in large enterprise organizations, Garcia says: “Where there are complex legacy systems, there’s a special kind of language that you need to manage those systems. Java is the best in that context.” is one of the most widely used architecture languages.

With Java’s abstract class feature, you can hide complex, outdated code so that you only see the information you need. This tool helps you maintain and manage legacy systems. According to Garcia, this hiding ability is a big part of dealing with old code. “It helps engineers summarize the complexities.”

Classification: Java is a high-level, object-oriented language.

Usage: Java is a back-end development tool used to create web applications with common applications, including Spotify and X (formerly Twitter). Tools like the Spring Framework and Hibernate ORM make it easy to build these new applications using Java. Fields like AI, fintech, e-commerce, and gaming benefit from the language’s strength. Minecraft, the most popular video game of 2023, has sold over 300 million copies and was created with Java.

Places to learn it.: Sites like Codecademy and Coursera offer ways to learn Java—every instructional topic like design patterns, data structures, and simple algorithms like sorting. Dew Mountain’s part-time, remote Java software engineering course costs $9,900. The 16-week program covers Java, Git, frameworks, data structures, and SQL.

Difference between front-end and back-end programming languages

There are different types of programming languages, but it is important for anyone interested in web development to understand the difference between front-end and back-end languages.

  • Front-end languages ​​include user interface and client-side development. Think HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. Front-end languages ​​create the site you’re currently viewing.
  • Backend languages ​​handle server-side logic and data processing. Think Java, Python, and Ruby on Rails.

Difference between high-level and low-level programming

The other two main categories for programming languages ​​are high-level and low-level.

  • Despite the name, high-level languages ​​are designed for ease of human readability and comprehension. They can run on any platform and are widely used.
  • Low-level languages ​​are closer to machine code, less human-friendly and more efficient for specific tasks. However, they are machine dependent and are generally underutilized.

So, what is the best programming language to learn?

There’s no definitive answer to the question, but Garcia says you have to start somewhere.

“Programming languages ​​share common structures, have similar workflows, patterns, and things like that,” says Garcia. “Once you gain more experience, you’ll start to see common themes across languages. The motivation will encourage you to learn and go deeper.”

There are thousands of languages ​​to learn and lines of code to type — so taking the first step can seem daunting. But learning something new can be interesting, so focus on the problem you want to solve and then find a language that works for you.
For more information on software development skills to hire, good fortune Compiled the most in-demand programming languages ​​for 2024.

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